The harmony of man

Sunday, September 29, 2013




video

Somdet Phra Ramathibodi III send the embarking courtesy of Thai:convoy to king Louise XIV.
His majesty was the king of Ayutthaya from 1656 to 1688 and arguably the most famous Ayutthayan king. His reign was the most prosperous during the Ayutthaya period and saw the great commercial and diplomatic activities with foreign nations including the Persians and the West. During the later years of his reign, Narai gave his favorite – the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon – so much power that Phaulkon technically became the chancellor of the state. Through the arrangements of Phaulkon, the Siamese kingdom came into close diplomatic relations with the court of Louis XIV Siamese embassador Kosa Pan presented King Narai's letter to Louis XIV at Versailles, 1 September 1686Rising French influence[edit]The later half of Narai’s reign was the period of the growing French influence until the coup of 1688. This was achieved through a Greek adventurer with the Latinized name of Constantine Phaulkon who formerly worked for the English East India Company. Phaulkon was introduced into the court by Kosa Lek in 1681 as a witted interpreter and quickly gained the royal favor. In 1682

Saturday, September 14, 2013


The Ayutthaya Period
28. Narai the Great: (1656-1688)
King Narai the Great was the son of King Prasatthong. He was a great warrior with sufficient armed forces to protect the Kingdom. In 1662, King Narai sent troops to attack Burma and Chiang Mai. His numerous conquests and victories glorified Siamese military might throughout Asia. At this time, it was said among foreigners in Ayutthaya that of all the Asian natives, the Kingdom of Siam was the most powerful with an incomparably magnificent Court.  
Above all of his well-known characteristics, King Narai was the most outward-looking and cosmopolitan ruler during the reign of Ayutthaya. Like all Siamese kings, King Narai was the upholder of all faiths in the Kingdom. Bishop Pierre Lambert de la Motte said that, except for Siam, there was nowhere in the world where various natives could live together in liberty of conscience.
As for foreign relations, King Narai became the most renowned Thai monarch since he adopted a friendly policy towards foreigners, especially the Europeans. Ayutthaya was a metropolis where peoples from many lands congregated, including the Dutch, the British, the French, the Portugese and the Arab. The French, who first arrived in 1662, sent missionaries and merchants to the capital. During the 1680's, splendid embassies were exchanged between King Narai and King Louis XIV. Later on, the conflict broke out when the French tried to convert King Narai to Christianity and also attempted to gain a foothold in the Thai kingdom by sending troops to garrison Bangkok and Mergui in 1687. However, an anti-French official seized power in 1688, drove out the French garrisons, and executed King Narai's Greek favorite Constantine Faulcon, who had been championing the French cause. After 1688, Ayutthaya had less contact with western nations.
The Thai Kingdom under the reign of King Narai was abundant in agricultural produce. Siam did a lot of trade with merchants from different parts of the world. During his prosperous reign, Siam was always crowded with hundreds of vessels of all sizes from both Asia and Europe.
K ing Narai himself was a poet, and Thai literature was revived during his reign. Under his patronage, his Court became the center where poets congregated to compose verses and poems. King Narai certainly made his poetic mark in the history of Thai literature and enjoyed the literary works, which were admirably produced by such outstanding poets as Pra Maharajkru, Pra Horatibodi, and Sriprachya. At the command of King Narai, Pra Horatibodi wrote a book for the study of Thai language entitled Chindamani, in order to counter balance the French cultural influence. The King worried about Thai children who attended the catholic schools in increasing numbers, as they might adopt the European culture and be converted. Summing up the elements, the grammar, the prosody, the versification of Thai language as well as official forms of correspondence, the Chindamani became a popular textbook in due time and continued to be in use until the commencement of King Chulalongkorn's reign (1868-1910). It is generally accepted as the first textbook of Thai language.

Friday, September 13, 2013


  ..Wichayen XVI ( Constantine John Falcone ) (Greek : Κωνσταντίνος Γεράκης Constanta Orlando Konstantinos Gera , England : Constantine Phaulkon) was a Greek adventurer . Who became Somuhnaik in the reign of King Narai the Great. Of Ayudhya. In addition to Greek. Which is the mother tongue . Falcons can speak many different languages ​​, including Thailand , English , French , Portuguese,.His sweetheart Who's Thao Thong? Portugal is the first European to travel into contact with Ayutthaya in 2054 BC, when King Rama in the second after the Portuguese captured Malacca has already Alphonse send Captains Fernandez,Portuguese-Malacca, that ever happened before negotiated with Thailand."

ฝอยทอง (Portuguese: fios de ovos)


In the Ayutthaya period. In the reign of King Narai the Great, by Don Marquis I'm Marie de spin to (Dame gold horse hooves, BE 2202-2265), half Portuguese - Japanese Wichayen XVI's wife (John Constantine Falcons) Thao Thong Kip has served as head of royal kitchen from the dessert compartment. The recepies of combination eggyork asnd sugar, Receita de Fios de Ovos the High Commissioner of French cooking, visiting the Ayutthaya period Portuguese:(fios de ovos) Spread out in the form of eggs and Golden Ball. (Portuguese: fios de ovos) is a Portuguese dessert. The line is made of fuzzy golden yolk of eggs. Boil in boiling water and sugar. The Portuguese used to eat bread. The main meal with meat. Serve with cake .
 

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Siam seventeenth century and over yonder

  ..Wichayen XVI ( Constantine John Falcone ) (Greek : Κωνσταντίνος Γεράκης Constanta Orlando Konstantinos Gera , England : Constantine Phaulkon) was a Greek adventurer . Who became Somuhnaik in the reign of King Narai the Great. Of Ayudhya. In addition to Greek. Which is the mother tongue . Falcons can speak many different languages ​​, including Thailand , English , French , Portuguese and Malay .etc,. Childhood [edit ] Falcon is the regional process Kefalonia (Greece ) was established in 2190 by the descendants of Greeks and Venice . Falcons, he worked for the British East India Company . He was awarded by the king to married Thao Thong Kleep mar.or Vicky Kumar (Tanquimar) is half Portuguese - Japanese and Bengal,  by the mother of Thao Thong kip Mar named Mrs.Ursula Yamada) or some books called Ursula Yamada, a Japanese mixture of Portuguese descent. Immigrant religious refugees into Ayudhya Father :Phanick Guimar or Fanik Guyomar) who is half Japanese mixed Guest Bengal and the Portuguese colony of Goa .
Family Yamada was the Puritan Christianity ,  Thao Thong Kip Mar (Dame golden hooves) had been told, she had been baptist by one of was a congreation of St. Francis Xavier. Who was her mother.  superior. The Abbé de Choisy, who was part of the first French embassy to Thailand in 1685, wrote about M. Phaulkon's character: "He was one of those in the world who have the most wit, liberality, magnificence, intrepidity, and was full of great projects, but perhaps he only wanted to have French troops in order to try and make himself king after the death of his master, which he saw as imminent. He was proud, cruel, pitiless, and with inordinate ambition. He supported the Christian religion because it could support him; but I would never have trusted him in things in which his own advancement was not involved" —Abbé de Choisy, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de Louis XIV, 1983:150.[9] Phaulkon's closeness to the king naturally earned him the envy of some Thai members of the royal court, which would eventually prove to be his undoing. When King Narai became terminally ill, a rumor spread that Phaulkon wanted to use the designated heir, Phra Pui, as a puppet and actually become ruler himself. As unlikely as this was, it provided an excuse for Pra Phetracha, the foster brother of Narai to stage a coup d'état, the 1688 Siamese revolution. Without the king's knowledge, both Phaulkon and his followers as well as the royal heir were arrested and executed on June 5, 1688 in Lopburi. When King Narai learned what had happened, he was furious -- but was too weak to take any action. Narai died several days later, virtually a prisoner in his own palace. Phetracha then proclaimed himself the new king of Siam and began a xenophobic regime which expelled almost all foreigners from the kingdom. The different interpretations of Phetracha's motivation for ordering the arrest and execution of Phaulkon have made the Greek's position in Thai history somewhat controversial. Supporters of Phetracha's actions have depicted Phaulkon as an opportunistic foreigner who sought to use his influence to control of the kingdom on behalf of Western interests. More skeptical historians believe that Phaulkon was simply a convenient scapegoat - a means for Phetracha to seize the throne from the rightful heir by capitalizing on the envy and suspicion Phaulkon had engendered, A single galleon might carry 2 million pesos. Of the estimated 4 billion pesos produced during the period 2.5 billion was shipped to Europe, of which 500 million was shipped around Africa to Asia. Of the remaining 1.5 billion 650 million went directly to Asia from Acapulco and 850 million remained in the Western Hemisphere. Little of the wealth stayed in Spain. Of the 11 million arriving in 1590, 2 million went to France for imports, 6 million to Italy for imports and military expenses, of which 2.5 went up the Spanish road to the low countries and 1 million to the Ottoman Empire. 1.5 million was shipped from Portugal to Asia. Of the 2 million pesos reaching the Dutch Republic in that year, 75% went to the Baltic for naval stores and 25% went to Asia. The income of the Spanish crown from all sources was about 2.5 million pesos in 1550, 14 million in the 1590s, about 15 million in 1760 and 30 million in 1780. In 1665 the debts of the Spanish crown were 30 million pesos short-term and 300 million long-term. Most of the New World production……meanwhile in the southern part The british ship. Its's a summone from the king James I. involved, preventing a subsequent of... Anne (r.1702-1714) The Hanoverians Saxe-Coburg-Gotha The House of Windsor The House of Windsor from 1952 Archive footage video gallery Image gallery Royal Profiles Her Majesty The Queen The Prince of Wales The Princess Royal HomeHistory of the MonarchyUnited Kingdom Monarchs (1603 - present)The StuartsJames I (r. 1603-1625)James I (r. 1603-1625) James I, son of Mary, Queen of Scots (and descended from Henry VII's daughter Margaret), had been King of Scotland for 36 years when he became King of England. Although he was King of both countries, James's attempt to create a full governmental union proved premature ....... on the throne of Scotland


A paragraph. In 1682, Phaulkon abandoned Anglicanism for Catholicism and soon after married a Catholic woman of mixed Japanese-Portuguese-Bengali descent named Maria Guyomar de Pinha. They lived a life of affluence as Phaulkon rose to become highly influential at the Siamese court of king Narai. Their marriage brought two sons, João and Jorge, the first of whom died before his horrible death.[7] Following troubles with the English and the Dutch, Phaulkon engineered a Franco-Siamese rapprochement leading to the exchange of numerous embassies between France and Siam, as well as the dispatch of an expeditionary force by the French in 1687. Phaulkon, called Monsieur Constance by the French and addressed Cher ami by their king, was their main ally for several years. In recognition king Louis XIV of France awarded him with the knighthood of the Order of Saint Michael, a hereditary title in the French nobility as well as the French citizenship for him and his family. The Abbé de Choisy, who was part of the first French embassy to Thailand in 1685, wrote about M. Phaulkon's character: "He was one of those in the world who have the most wit, liberality, magnificence, intrepidity, and was full of great projects, but perhaps he only wanted to have French troops in order to try and make himself king after the death of his master, which he saw as imminent. He was proud, cruel, pitiless, and with inordinate ambition. He supported the Christian religion because it could support him; but I would never have trusted him in things in which his own advancement was not involved" —Abbé de Choisy, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de Louis XIV, 1983:150.[9] Phaulkon's closeness to the king naturally earned him the envy of some Thai members of the royal court, which would eventually prove to be his undoing. When King Narai became terminally ill, a rumor spread that Phaulkon wanted to use the designated heir, Phra Pui, as a puppet and actually become ruler himself. As unlikely as this was, it provided an excuse for Pra Phetracha, the foster brother of Narai to stage a coup d'état, the 1688 Siamese revolution. Without the king's knowledge, both Phaulkon and his followers as well as the royal heir were arrested and executed on June 5, 1688 in Lopburi. When King Narai learned what had happened, he was furious -- but was too weak to take any action. Narai died several days later, virtually a prisoner in his own palace. Phetracha then proclaimed himself the new king of Siam and began a xenophobic regime which expelled almost all foreigners from the kingdom. The different interpretations of Phetracha's motivation for ordering the arrest and execution of Phaulkon have made the Greek's position in Thai history somewhat controversial. Supporters of Phetracha's actions have depicted Phaulkon as an opportunistic foreigner who sought to use his influence to control of the kingdom on behalf of Western interests. More skeptical historians believe that Phaulkon was simply a convenient scapegoat - a means for Phetracha to seize the throne from the rightful heir by capitalizing on the envy and suspicion Phaulkon had engendered. Thje windfall profit taxation in 1688.